Cytology for Gynecologist

We owe our expertize to the patients undergoing colposcopy by us overtime and whose colpophotographs have been included in this book, because of which compilation/formation of this book has become possible.

We also owe our knowledge to the participants of colposcopy workshops conducted by us over a span of many years, whose constant enquiries and curiosities encouraged us to enhance our skills in this field as well as keep our knowledge afresh. The constant encouragement and appreciation of all the gynecologists and colposcopists who had been the readers of our first book An Atlas of Colposcopy, Cytology and Histopathology of Lower Female Genital Tract resulted in the compilation of all our work in the form of this book. We are grateful to all these persons.

We are deeply grateful to Pro£. Amita Suneja, Professor, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, Delhi, for her critical appraisal of this manuscript and also giving useful advice from time-to-time. We also thank her for contributing the chapter on “Minimizing Colposcopy Errors“.

We are also very grateful to Dr Mithilesh Chandra, cytohistopathologist, for contributing the illustrative micro- Photographs and the chapter on “Cytology for Gynecologist“.

We appreciate the great efforts put in by Dr. Madhu igam and thank her for contributing schematic diagrams in various chapters.

Finally, we are extremely thankful to the whole team of CBS Publishers & Distributors, Mr SK Jain, Chairman; Mr. YN Arjuna, Senior Director-Publishing; Ms Ritu Chawla, Production Manager; Mr Neeraj Prasad and Ms Preeti Khera, for their untiring support at every level of making of this book.


  • Sample Collection
  • Time of Sample Collection
  • Exposing the Cervix
  • Collection Device
  • Collection Technique (for Conventional Pap Smear)
    Obtaining Cellular Sample
    Smear Preparation
    Smear Fixation
    Collection Technique (for Liquid-Based Preparation)
    Conventional Pap Smear vs. Liquid-Based Cytology
    Sample Submission 
    Types of Cells Seen on Cervical Cytology  
    Normal Findings
    Basal Cells
    Parabasal Cells 
    Intermediate Cells
    Navicular Cells 
    Superficial Cells
    Endocervical Cells 
    Squamous Metaplasia
    Normal Pap Smear                                                                                
    Abnormal Findings
    Dysplastic Endocervical Cells                                          
    Cervical Cytology Reporting
    Bethesda System (2011) for Reporting Cervical Cytologic Diagnosis 
    Specimen Adequacy
    Interpretation/ Result
    Negative for Intraepithelial Lesion/Malignancy
    Other Non-neoplastic Findings
    Epithelial Cell Abnormalities and Squamous
    Low Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (LGSIL)
    High Grade Intraepithelial Lesion (HGSIL) 
    Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cervix
    Epithelial Cell Abnormalities, Glandular
    Ancillary Testing and Educational Notes